D. Job Hazard Analysis
The purpose of this document to assist management in performing hazard identification and mitigation, through job hazard analysis, within their department or crown corporation as required.
A job hazard analysis (JHA) is a procedure by which a particular job is broken down into basic steps and the potential hazards of each step are identified and recommendations are made to help ensure the job is done in a safe manner. A JHA is usually performed by the supervisor and the affected employees for specific ‘high hazard' tasks that are not regularly performed as part of an employee's daily work activities. The end result of a JHA is a Safe Job Procedure.
4 basic steps of conducting a JHA:
1. Decide whether a job is to be analyzed, based on the following criteria:
- Incident frequency and severity - jobs where incidents occur frequently or where they occur infrequently but result in disabling injuries.
- Potential for severe injuries or illness - the consequences of the incident, hazardous conditions, or exposure to harmful substances are potentially severe
- Newly established jobs - due to lack of experience in these jobs, hazards may not be evident or anticipated
- Modified jobs - new hazards may be associated with changes in job procedures
- Infrequently performed jobs - employees may be at greater risk when undertaking non-routine jobs, and a JHA provides a means of review hazards
2. Break the job down into a sequence of steps. Ensure that each step is not too specific or too general. Steps should be kept in the correct sequence. Document using the Job Hazard Analysis template. Make notes on what is done, rather than how it is done.
3. Identify the potential hazards. Based on observations of the job, knowledge of incident and injury causes, and personal experience, list the things that could go wrong at each step. The following is a list of questions that may be used to help identify potential hazards:
- Can any body part get caught in or between objects?
- Do tools, machines, or equipment present any hazards?
- Can the worker make harmful contact with moving objects?
- Can the worker slip, trip, or fall?
- Can the worker suffer strain from lifting, pushing, or pulling?
- Is the worker exposed to extreme heat or cold?
- Is excessive noise or vibration a problem?
- Is there a danger from falling objects?
- Is lighting a problem?
- Can weather conditions affect safety?
- Is harmful radiation a possibility?
- Can contact be made with hot, toxic, or caustic substances?
- Are there dusts, fumes, mists, or vapours in the air?
4. Hazard Mitigation
Upon completion of the first three steps of the job hazard analysis, determine the appropriate controls to overcome the hazards, as per Yukon OHS Regulations, Part 1, General, 1.04 Eliminate or control hazards. The following control methods, often known as the "hierarchy of controls," should be considered in the order they are presented:
- Elimination - eliminate the hazards where possible. Is it possible to discontinue the use of this product/process/machine/chemical?
- Substitution - substitute one process for a safer process (i.e. substitute the use of one product for a safer product). Is there another product/process/machine or chemical that we can use that does the same job that has lower levels of risk?
- Isolation - isolate the hazard from the employees. Can the object/area/process be surrounded in such a way so it cannot impact on any employee? Can the employee be placed in a control booth? Can the object/area be controlled from a remote location without increasing the risk?
- Engineering Controls - methods built into the design of a workplace, equipment or process to minimize the hazard. Is there a way to modify the object/process/ machine so that the exposure is minimized?
- Administration Controls - . Can information, instruction and training be provided to help minimize the risk? Can shift roster arrangements limit the exposure?
- PPE - provide information, training and personal protective equipment (PPE) where it is not possible to eliminate or control the hazards. PPE should be a last resort as it relies on human compliance, which can be unreliable unless monitored.
Document the appropriate controls on the Job Hazard Analysis template. Upon completion of the JHA formulate a Safe Job Procedure by reiterating the "Sequence of Events" and the "Control Measures" that were deemed most appropriate to mitigate the hazard(s).